All excellent points. The one caveat is that all these colors wash out partially or completely for color-blind, blue-light-blocking, and dark mode users. Shape and contrast are critical for visibility in these cases.
Personally, I wear safety lenses that filter HEV (high energy violet - the most harmful type of blue light). With these lenses, blue and green are mostly indistinguishable (e.g. shades of dark grey or black). Red looks like a pick-tinted shade of light grey, while yellow "pops" next to grey and red only when heavily saturated. I didn't view in dark mode, but colorful details don't tend to fare well - especially yellow.
Regarding your designs - I'm a big fan of white space, so I prefer the gently optimized version. (I honestly don't have a problem with the originals personally, but I do agree the optimized styles are better in comparison). Much of the contrast is lost for me in your bolder versions of Gmail, Calendar and Docs icons - both with and without the glasses.
I haven't done any technical accessibility testing on these icons - just commenting from actual use perspective. Hope this helps!